Current as of: July 23, 2024 - 14:40


Discover Namibia - Lodges Trip Notes

  • Ways to Travel: Guided Group, Private Group Adventures
  • Destination: Namibia
  • Programmes: Culture
  • Activity Level:

    2 out of 7 - Easy & Moderate

  • 15 Days: Flight Inclusive
  • 13 Days: Land Only
  • Ages: 16+
  • Trip Code: AZNP
  • Carbon Footprint: 21kg CO2e

Trip Overview

Experience desert dunes, coastal wilderness and wonderful game-viewing in Africa’s most underrated destination

The scenic beauty of Namibia is only matched by the diversity. Deep canyons, towering dunes, otherworldly rock formations and vast salt pans merge seamlessly in an endlessly shifting landscape. The sky seems particularly big here with spectacular sunsets and, at night, billions of twinkling stars overhead. This is the backdrop for healthy wildlife populations and a mix of different communities.

At a Glance

  • 12 nights in lodges, chalets or hotels
  • Travel in a purpose-built overland truck
  • Some long drives
  • Camping departures available


  • Two full days in Etosha National Park
  • The highest dunes in the world
  • The spectacular Namib-Naukluft Park Desert
  • Brandberg, the highest mountain in Namibia

Is This Trip for You?

This trip has been rated Activity Level 2 (Easy & Moderate). For more information on our trip gradings please visit the Activity Level Guidelines page. If you have any queries about the difficulty of the trip please do not hesitate to contact us.

Most walks are of a Moderate difficulty, such as climbing Dune 45 and visiting the White Lady rock painting at Brandberg. The walks on the Waterberg Plateau are classified as Moderate to Challenging, as it can get a bit steep and rocky.

Travel: Transport is in a specially modified safari truck with 10 to 12 seats for group members. There is plenty of legroom and packing space plus a reference library, fridge and/or icebox. Smaller groups may be in a Toyota Hilux/Land Cruiser. By keeping the group size small, we maximise the exposure to the great African wilderness.

Road conditions: Eighty percent of Namibian roads are good gravel roads. However, road conditions are dependent on maintenance, so can be poor on occasions. This can have an impact on journey times and comfort, and can be punishing on the vehicles. Drive times on this trip are moderate and we will normally arrive at our destination in the afternoon. The total distance covered is about 1,740mi (2,800km). Drive times below are approximations and do vary according to road conditions and the number of stops. We will rarely exceed six hours of driving in one day.

Difficulty: There are some days where we will have to get up before sunrise, but this will allow us to get the most from our activities (for example, the game drives in Etosha where we are more likely to see wildlife in the early mornings before it gets too hot).

Adult min age: 16

Min group size: 4

Max group size: 12



Land Only

  • Start City: Windhoek
  • End City: Windhoek

Land Only Itinerary

Day 1
Start Windhoek

The tour starts at Arebbusch Lodge in Windhoek. The afternoon can be spent exploring or relaxing, perhaps taking a dip in the pool or watching the many native birds that swoop overhead. There will be a welcome briefing in the evening to discuss the adventures to come.

Accommodation: Arebbusch Lodge (or similar)

Day 2
Drive through Namib Nuakluft to Sesriem

Today we head southwest through the spectacular scenery of the Namib-Naukluft Park towards the Sesriem/Solitaire area.

This national park, one of the largest in the world, is home to one of the driest and oldest deserts on Earth. It also has towering, jagged rock formations and an incredible lunar landscape, so be prepared for great photo stops.

Driving: 186mi-217mi (300km-350km); seven hours

Accommodation: Weltevrede Guest Farm (or similar)

Meals included: Breakfast, Dinner

Day 3
Sossusvlei and the Namib Carnivore Conservation Centre

Today we spend much of our time in the Namib Desert. Rising early, we visit the tallest dunes in the world and climb one of them in the early morning light for spectacular views. We can either walk to Hiddenvlei or catch a transfer (optional extra) to Deadvlei, where ancient acacia trees form an eerie desert scene. If we’re lucky, we may see gemsbok or ostrich among the dunes. In the afternoon, we visit Sesriem Canyon before joining a guide to see the cheetahs at the Namib Carnivore Conservation Centre (please see Responsible Travel section); depending on time, we may go tomorrow morning.

Driving: 124mi (200km); three hours

Accommodation: Weltevrede Guest Farm (or similar)

Meals included: Breakfast, Dinner

Day 4
To Swakopmund via Walvis Bay

We take a long but very scenic drive through the Namib-Naukluft Park to Swakopmund. En route, we visit Walvis Bay for lunch and to see flamingos. Swakopmund is a small German colonial resort town with quaint cake shops and coffee houses and a centre for adrenaline activities.

Driving: 186mi (300km); 5hr 30min

Accommodation: Prost Hotel (or similar)

Meals included: Breakfast

Day 5
Free day for optional activities

Today is free to enjoy one of the many optional activities here. On the water, go deep-sea fishing; in the desert, try sandboarding and quad-biking; and in the sky, fly over the Skeleton Coast. Or spend the day enjoying the fantastic local Viennese-style cakes, walk along the beach or nearby dunes, or just watch the world pass in this town which seems strangely out of place in Africa.

Accommodation: Prost Hotel (or similar)

Meals included: Breakfast

Day 6

After a relaxing start, we leave the cool breeze of the Atlantic Ocean behind and head inland towards Brandberg, the highest mountain in Namibia, in Damaraland. The Damaraland area is best-known as being home to desert elephants that roam in the Ugab River. Stargazing is normally spectacular from this remote area.

Driving: 149mi (240km); 3hr 30min

Accommodation: Brandberg White Lady Lodge campsite (or similar)

Meals included: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner

Day 7
White Lady Painting and Vingerklip

We begin our day with a short drive to Brandberg, where we enjoy a walk through Valley 45 for approximately 90 minutes. Along the way, we view beautiful, granite formations and a variety of birdlife. The valley takes us to the White Lady rock painting which, along with several other small paintings and engravings, are thought to have been left by San hunter-gatherers at least 2,000 years ago (please note that if elephants walk into this area then it might be too dangerous to do the walk- in this case we will typically go on a game drive looking for elephants). After, we drive towards the Khorixas area, where we should pass various Himba and Herero women selling crafts from the roadside. We may also spot desert elephants and meerkats on the way. In the afternoon, we can view Vingerklip, a striking pinnacle of rock balancing vertically on its own.

Driving: 155mi (250km); 4hr 30min

Accommodation: Damara Mopane Lodge (or similar)

Meals included: Breakfast, Dinner

Day 8
To Etosha National Park

We begin with a short drive to Etosha, a huge national park of mixed forest and grassland centred around a large salt pan. We should arrive in time for a late afternoon game drive before reaching our accommodation for the night. The itinerary allows plenty of time to really enjoy this fabulous game park.

Driving: 125mi (200km); three hours

Accommodation: Okaukuejo Lodge (or similar)

Meals included: Breakfast

Days 9 - 10
Two days game viewing in Etosha

Etosha is home to a great variety of species, which are generally easy to find as the animals congregate at different times around the waterholes. Wildebeest, zebras, impalas, springbucks, kudus, elephants, giraffes, lions and even rhinos are all common sights here. Bring plenty of camera memory and patience and you will be rewarded by one of the greatest game spectacles in southern Africa. Etosha is also a good place to spot birds, with plenty of water birds on the lakes (when filled with water), and weaverbirds and hornbills in the trees. In Etosha, we typically stay within the park on some or all the nights (subject to availability) and the camps are next to waterholes. These accommodations also offer optional night drives, which you can book and pay for on arrival.

Accommodation: Namutoni Lodge (or similar)

Meals included: Breakfast (x2), Lunch (x1)

Day 11
On to the Waterberg Plateau. Optional 4x4 game drive

Leaving Etosha behind, we head towards the Waterberg Plateau. This 656ft (200m) high plateau topped by bushveld is one of the most fertile areas in Namibia. There are several walking trails, including one leading to a spectacular viewpoint near the top of the plateau. You can also take an optional 4×4 game drive.

Driving: 186mi (300km); five hours

Accommodation: Waterberg Lodge (or similar)

Meals included: Breakfast

Day 12
Waterberg Plateau and on to Windhoek

We have free time this morning to relax or explore the Waterberg Plateau a little further. Later, we head back to Windhoek stopping at a crafts market on the way.

Driving: 199mi (320km); 4hr 30min

Accommodation: Arebbusch Lodge (or similar)

Day 13
End Windhoek

The trip ends after breakfast. Free time before your flight can be spent relaxing at the accommodation or exploring Windhoek, where there are museums and shops. Alternatively, arrange a township tour of Windhoek or visit the nearby Daan Viljoen game reserve (see Optional Excursions section).

Meals included: Breakfast


Guesthouses and lodges

Discover Namibia – Lodges

Throughout this adventure in Namibia, we mostly stay in two- and three-star lodges and occasionally in permanent tented camps. The rooms are simple, comfortable and clean. Most properties have swimming pools, so don’t forget your swimwear.

Below are a few of the standout accommodations.

Arebbusch Travel Lodge

Discover Namibia – Lodges

Our guesthouse is only a 10-minute drive from the city centre yet is spacious with two swimming pools and one of the best pizzerias in the capital. It also has a beautiful garden enlivened with indigenous trees, which provide a habitat for a wealth of birdlife, including black-throated canaries, laughing doves and red-headed finches.

Brandberg White Lady Lodge

Discover Namibia – Lodges

Our Brandberg stay is in the middle of nowhere. From the viewpoint, you will not see another property, just the ruggedly beautiful landscape of Damaraland and possibly some desert elephants in the distance. There’s a dining area, well-stocked bar, lounge, and two swimming pools.

Lodges in Etosha National Park

Discover Namibia – Lodges

In Etosha, we stay within the national park itself – a huge plus for any animal lover. The resorts we use are either Okaukuejo, Halali or Namutoni. Each location has a restaurant, swimming pool and bar but the highlights are the flood-lit waterholes where wildlife regularly stops to drink and bathe.

Worth knowing

  • Wifi is available in several properties but not everywhere, notably not in Sesriem, Etosha or Waterberg.
  • Due to the limited amount of accommodation within Etosha National Park, it is sometimes necessary to sleep outside the park on some or all of the nights we are there. However, this is rare. Where we stay will not impact the number of game drives we have within the park.
  • Our rooms in Etosha are the only accommodation where mosquito nets are provided, as the park is in a low-risk malaria area.

Single supplement from £ 260

Food & Drink

All breakfasts, two lunches and four dinners are included. In the itinerary, we state which meals are included on which day.

For meals not included, allow approximately 250 Namibian dollars (US$13.30) per person for dinner and 200 dollars (US$10.70) for lunch. Meals are in restaurants or at the lodges.

Meat plays a big part in Namibian cuisine. However, lodges/restaurants can cater for vegetarians if notified in advance. Please make let us know before departure if you have any dietary requests.


The vehicle normally used for this trip is a specially modified safari truck with 10 to 12 seats for clients. Seating is forward-facing and the windows are large and easy to open. Smaller groups may be in a Toyota Hilux/Land Cruiser. People are expected to move around to permit everyone a chance to have a window seat. There is plenty of legroom and packing space plus a reference library and icebox. Please note, it is not safe to stand when the vehicle is moving, please remain seated until the vehicle stops, even on game drives.

Weather & Seasonality

  • June to August: Clear and warm during the day, but temperatures can near freezing point at night.
  • September to May: Considerably warmer; October to March is the hottest, reaching the high 30Cs (around 100F). However, it is always a dry heat and the temperature drops at night. The wet season is between November and February, but this is not a bad time to go as the desert blooms after rainfall, there is plenty of birdlife to see and it never rains for very long.

Joining Instructions

Key information

Start hotel: Arebbusch Lodge, Corner of Golf & Auas Rd, Olympia, Windhoek, Namibia
Phone: +264 61 252 255
Recommended arrival time: You can arrive at any time today. There will be a welcome briefing in the evening, but if you miss it the leader will update you separately
Airport: Hosea Kutako International Airport (WDH)

Getting to the start hotel

The start hotel is approximately 45 minutes’ drive from the airport. Exodus provides free arrival transfers to the start hotel from the airport for all customers.

Catching your return flight

Exodus provides free departure transfers for all customers to Hosea Kutako International Airport (WDH) from the end hotel.

Please note, unless specified otherwise, the transfers will be to the start (or pre-tour) hotel and from the end (or post-tour) hotel and will be on the date on which the tour starts/ends; transfers to other hotels in the same city and/or on different dates may attract an extra charge. Transfers should be booked with your sales representative at least two weeks before the tour starts.

Full joining instructions including local emergency numbers will be sent to you as part of our Final Joining Instructions. If you do not receive these at least a week before departure, or require them earlier please contact our office or your travel agent.

Location start: Windhoek
Location end: Windhoek

What To Take

Essential Equipment

  • Torch (flashlight)
  • Sun hat
  • Sunscreen
  • Good walking shoes
  • Water bottle
  • Binoculars
  • Swimwear and towel
  • Clothes for hot, cool and cold weather

Water included
Plastic bottles are a big issue in many countries where recycling isn’t yet widely available; they often end up in landfill sites or get burned, both processes are harmful to the environment and we would like to reduce our impact here. On your trip the tap water is safe to drink throughout most of Namibia and the vehicle has a water tank. This means that safe drinking water will be available throughout and all you need to do is bring a bottle to re‐fill along the way. During the drier months, tap water may not taste as nice. If you prefer the taste of bottled water, it is possible to purchase and re-fill from 5l bottles throughout the itinerary.

Plastic waste reduction: Please bring your own reusable water bottle on this trip. Tap water is safe to drink throughout most of Namibia and the vehicle has a water tank that we can use while on the road. If you prefer the taste of bottled water, it is possible to purchase and refill from 5l bottles throughout the itinerary.

If while packing you find a spare bit of space in your bag please be sure to check out our partner ‘Pack for a Purpose’ to identify items that are needed locally by schools and medical clinics. Your Tour Leader can assist with donating the items.

Optional Equipment

  • Temperatures in July and August can get really cold, so we strongly recommend warm clothing at these times of the year

Practical Information


Remember to check the expiration date of your passport if travelling internationally. Many countries require your passport to be valid for at least six months after the date of your scheduled return.



Travellers from the UK, US and some EU states normally do not need a visa to enter Namibia. Please note, visa requirements often change and it is your responsibility to obtain any required visas for this trip. Therefore, we recommend that you check with the nearest embassy or consulate of your chosen destination(s), including any countries you may be transiting or transferring through.

Some local governments provide guidance on what visas their citizens need. To help, we’ve gathered a selection of useful links below.

• Australia:
• Canada:
• United Kingdom:
• USA:

If you are transiting through South Africa and are a non-UK passport holder you may require a transit visa. Please check before travelling. Please note that if flying via South Africa you will probably have to pass immigration there.

Passports: To enter Namibia, your passport must have an ‘expiry date’ at least 6 months after the date you arrive. It must also have at least one blank page. If you’re travelling to South Africa, you will need an additional 2 blank pages.

Travelling with children: In addition to valid passports, parents travelling with children (under 18) should at all times carry the original or certified copy of the unabridged birth certificate (listing the child’s and both parents’ details). Adults travelling with children where they are not the biological or legal guardians of those children, should be in possession of an affidavit statement from the child’s parents giving consent for their travel. If a child is travelling with only one parent, the other parent should give consent for travel in the form of an affidavit.

Vaccinations and Health


There are no required vaccinations. However, recommended vaccinations include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, typhoid, cholera, rabies and tuberculosis. Malaria prophylaxis is essential, seek advice from your doctor about which malaria tablets to take. You will also need a yellow fever vaccination certificate if you’re arriving from a country with risk of yellow fever transmission or transiting for more than 12 hours through a country with risk of yellow fever transmission. Please confirm all requirements and recommendations with your doctor or travel clinic.

Local Time

Namibia's time zone: Africa/Windhoek (UTC +02:00)


Namibia's electricity: Plug types D (three round pins) and M (three round pins) – 230V, 50Hz

Discover Namibia – Lodges


Namibia's currency: Namibian dollar (NAD), though South African rand (ZAR) is widely accepted

ATM Availability

There are ATMs in the main towns and at the airport, but you should not rely on these for all your money. Credit cards are widely accepted, including at hotels, shops and restaurants.

All major denominations, including but not limited to, Pound Sterling (GBP), US dollars (USD) and Euros (EUR), are accepted at currency exchange establishments, available in all major towns and at the airport (seven days a week). If you prefer to exchange money before your arrival, it is recommended to buy South African rand.

Extra Expenses & Spending Money

Budget an average of 370 Namibian dollars (equals to US$20) a day for non-included meals and snacks.

There are several optional activities in Swakopmund, such as ocean fishing, quad‐biking and sandboarding but there’s plenty to occupy you if you don’t participate.

These prices are approximate and to be paid in local currency or card:

  • Deadvlei transfer (if not walking to Hiddenvlei on Day 3): 180 Namibian dollars (US$12)
  • Quad‐biking: N$850 (US$58) for two hours, N$600  (US$40) for one hour
  • Fat biking (two hours): N$500 (US$33)
  • Flight over Sossousvlei and Skeleton Coast (two hours): N$5,300 (US$360)
  • Ocean fishing: N$1,200-1,500 (US$81-US$101)
  • Living Desert tour (half day): N$1,000 (US$67)
  • Swakopmund township tour: N$750 (US$52)
  • Sandboarding: Lay down for N$600 (US$41), stand up for N$700 (US$48)
  • Additional Etosha safari: $750 Namibian dollars (US$51)
  • Waterberg safari (three hours): $650 Namibian dollars (US$44)
  • Windhoek township tour (minimum two people): N$480 (US$32)
  • Daan Viljoen Game Reserve: N$150 (US$9) entrance fee for walking trail plus 1300 Namibian dollars (£72/US$88) for a return transfer to the reserve
  • Sandwich Harbour N$1400 (half day)
  • Elephant game drive: 690 Namibian dollars (£30/US$37)


This is entirely optional, but we would recommend approximately 25-45 Namibian dollars (US$1.70-US$3) per person per day in either local currency or any other major denomination. For other staff such as porters and guides on optional activities we recommend that you budget for the equivalent of a further USD5-8, however, this is also optional.

In most restaurants and bars, an average of tipping 10 percent is common but be sure to check. This tip is voluntary and can be declined if service was unsatisfactory.

People, Places & Planet

We work hard to create trips that improve life for the people and places we visit, and look after the planet we explore. Find out more about our sustainable travel ethos and practice here, and find out about the work of the Exodus Travels Foundation here.


How this trip helps improve life for local communities.

  • The use of a local guide means our customers will be well informed about local traditions, and cultural and social sensitivities.
  • This trip brings income and opportunity to the destination community through the inclusion of locally owned accommodation and restaurants, the emphasis on eating locally produced food and support of other local enterprise.
  • Clients can further support the local economy by buying beer brewed in the area or trying regional specialities, such as mowpane worms.
  • We visit Swakopmund, which is a small German colonial resort town with quaint cake shops and coffee houses and a centre for adrenaline activities. This is a great chance to support locally owned businesses and learn about Namibian culture on an optional township tour.
  • There are plenty of craft markets in Swakopmund, as well as en route to Etosha, selling wooden carvings, jewellery and material Herero dolls. We encourage clients to purchase souvenirs from local craftsmen to sustain their work.


How this trip helps protect and conserve local landscapes and nature.

  • Read about our commitment to nature protection and restoration here, including our rewilding commitment for every customer who travels.
  • By travelling in a small group, led by a local guide, we ‘tread lightly’ to minimise our impact on local resources and the environment.
  • Our trips adhere to ABTA’s industry-leading animal welfare guidelines to ensure the best possible practices with regard to working animals and wildlife viewing. Our animal welfare policy can be found here.
  • We work with our partners on the ground to proactively eliminate or reduce waste, for example, eliminating all single-use plastic water bottles and instead providing refills for re-usable bottles.
  • During wildlife safaris and game drives we behave responsibly with any wildlife we may come into contact with and this is reinforced by our staff and by an environmental code of conduct posted in every vehicle we use.
  • Twenty-five percent of all park entrance fees paid are reinvested by the MET (Ministry of Environmental and Tourism) through the Game Products Trust Fund into essential infrastructure and services related to tourism in the parks of Namibia. So, by running our game drives in Etosha National Park, we are contributing to local community initiatives and helping to fund the protection of the wide range of species which live there.
  • On this trip we also visit the Namib Carnivore Conservation Centre. This centre was set up to assist with the long-term conservation of the large carnivores in Namibia through research, education and rehabilitation. We will meet the resident cheetahs (cheetahs are the most endangered big cat in Africa, but Namibia has the largest free-roaming population in the world) and learn about the conservation efforts taking place.


How we seek to keep the carbon footprint of this trip low.

  • Read about our climate action here, including our carbon reduction and compensation commitments.
  • We use smaller, locally run accommodation, versus big hotel chains which have a bigger impact on the surrounding environments.
  • All of the accommodation we stay at uses locally sourced produce and supplies which have not been transported long distances.
  • Vegetarian options are available at all the accommodations and restaurants we use.
  • Energy-saving bulbs and water conservation signs are common in our accommodations.

Tips for sustainable travel on this trip

Extra steps you could take to minimise your impact when travelling.

  • Leave no trace: We do all we can to ensure we leave no rubbish behind in the wild and beautiful places we visit; we ask that you do the same. If there are no recycling facilities in-country, we’d ask you to consider bringing recyclable materials home with you.
  • Plastic waste reduction: Please bring your own reusable water bottle on this trip. Tap water is safe to drink and the vehicle has a water tank that we can use while on the road. If you prefer the taste of bottled water, it is possible to purchase and refill from 5l bottles throughout the itinerary.
  • If while packing you find a spare bit of space in your bag please be sure to check out our partner ‘Pack for a Purpose’ to identify items that are needed locally by schools and medical clinics.  Your Tour Leader can assist with donating the items –

Important Information

Optional activities and excursions

If you would like to join an optional activity or excursion outside those listed in the itinerary, your leader may be able to assist with selecting a provider. However, Exodus has not assessed the safety standards of activities or excursions that are not listed in the Trip Notes. All optional activities or excursions are undertaken at your own risk.

Water safety

This trip includes time by a lake, river or sea, where there may be opportunities to swim. You should always seek local advice before deciding whether to swim. Open-water or wild swim spots should be treated with extreme caution. Information on how to keep yourself safe while swimming is shown here.

Important Information

Your safe participation 

When booking this trip, you should be confident in your ability to participate in all activities described in these Trip Notes. If you have any doubt about your suitability, please call the Exodus office and ask to speak to one of the experts on this itinerary. 

Although our leaders are well trained to deal with different capabilities, if they have any concerns about someone’s ability to safely take part in an activity, or their impact on other people’s enjoyment, we authorise them to take necessary action which, in some circumstances, may involve asking someone to miss that activity. 

By booking this trip you agree to our Booking Conditions which clearly state that our leaders have the authority to do this. In these rare instances we will ensure anyone sitting out is safely provided for and offered alternative options where possible. Refunds will not be provided for activities missed and customers may be liable for additional costs incurred. 

How to Book

  1. Check availability: Go online to check availability, or contact us by phone or email.
  2. Secure your place: You can provisionally hold a place on this trip, usually for between three and seven days.
  3. Complete your booking and payment

When you’re ready to book, go to our website for online bookings, book over the phone or you can complete a booking form (available online or on request by calling us). We accept all major credit and debit cards, or you can pay be cheque.

After booking

You will receive your booking confirmation letter and invoice, which includes extra information and guidance about your travel arrangements.

Full joining instructions, including local emergency numbers and details of how to reach the start point, will be sent to you approximately two to three weeks prior to departure. If you do not receive these at least a week before departure, or require them earlier, please contact our office or your travel agent.

Trip Note validity

These Trip Notes are valid from the “Current as” date on page one. They will occasionally be updated after booking and before departure; if there are any updates that significantly impact the inclusions or itinerary, customers will be written to separately. They will also receive a link to the most up-to-date Trip Notes with their Final Joining Instructions before travelling.

The information in these Trip Notes is given in good faith. Where differences exist between the Trip Notes and our current brochure or website, the Trip Notes supersede the brochure and website. All holidays can be subject to unexpected changes; to enjoy them you should be prepared to be flexible where necessary. Occasionally, it may not be possible to follow the itinerary as planned. This may be for a variety of reasons – climatic, political, physical or other. In these circumstances we will make the best-possible alternative arrangements that maintain the integrity of the original itinerary.


Exodus is fully licensed and bonded as a tour operator. We hold Air Traffic Organisers Licence (ATOL) number 2582, issued and bonded with the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). We are also bonded to the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and we are members of the Federation of Tour Operators (FTO) and ABTA – The Travel Association. This means you can book your Exodus holiday with confidence, as all money paid to us for your trip is fully protected.