Hiker woman in Bryce Canyon hiking looking and enjoying view during her hike wearing hikers backpack. Bryce Canyon National Park landscape, Utah, United States.

Canyons and Navajo Lands Trip Notes

Ways to Travel:
Guided Group, Private Group Adventures
Destinations:
USA, Grand Canyon, Las Vegas, Utah, North America, Arizona, Monument Valley
Programmes:
Culture
Trip Code:
PCZ
Activity Rating - Leisurely/Moderate
Leisurely / Moderate

You are reasonably fit, enjoy the outdoors and are looking for some exercise. Some previous experience is preferable for activity based trips.

8 Days Land only
Ages: 16+

Trip Overview

This 8 day tour to the Grand Canyon from Las Vegas visits the best National Parks and Native American lands that Southwest USA offers. Travel along the Grand Staircase taking in the towering red sandstone cliffs of Zion National Park and the supernatural hoodoos of Bryce Canyon National Park. Enjoy a two-night stop at the breathtaking and awe-inspiring Grand Canyon, a truly unrivalled natural wonder. Visit the spiritual heart of the Navajo Nation, Monument Valley, where a Navajo guide takes you on a 4x4 journey into the backcountry to learn how the landscape shaped Native American myths and hear stories of Navajo legends.

At a Glance

  • Travel by private minibus
  • Variety of daywalks to suit all abilities
  • Some long journeys
  • Group normally 6 to 13, plus leader. Min age 16 yrs
  • 7 hotel nights included

Trip Highlights

  • Three breathtaking national parks
  • Navajo guided backroads tour in Monument Valley
  • Grand Canyon sunrise or sunset
  • Zion's sandstone cliffs & Bryce Canyon's rock hoodoos

Is This Trip for You?

This tour has been graded Leisurely/Moderate

This walking tour is designed for active adults and offer a well-paced mix of walks for all levels of fitness. Most walks are of moderate difficulty and are up to four hours in length. For the more adventurous there are often optional, moderate to strenuous hikes of up to eight hours duration in some locations. Your tour leader will organise these on your behalf and you will pay locally in cash. You’ll find the main optional activities listed above under each itinerary day description, along with guideline prices. It may not be possible to do all optional activities listed on each tour.

Although each tour follows an itinerary, there is a certain amount of flexibility and from time to time your tour leader may suggest changes.This may be due to road conditions, weather or a visit to a special attraction or event that happens to be in progress. Flexibility is key and often a side diversion will be a highlight of the tour. Hikes and optional activities cannot be guaranteed and may vary depending on ability, group interest, local weather conditions and time of year.

Group

Your tour leader will take care of all the planning and organisation throughout your tour, they will drive the van taking you from A to B and make sure everything runs smoothly. Your tour leader is there to make sure you get the most out of your tour; organising activities, providing information and answering any questions you may have as well as sorting out any queries or problems. If you have any particular interests or things you would like to do on your tour, then please let your tour leader know at the beginning of the tour and they will do their best to help you.

Working hour regulations for Leaders - We would like to note that US Law regulates the total number of hours your group leader is available to work. Tours are designed to make the most of your time in the States, but please understand that there will be certain times each day that your leader will need to be off duty from work in order to rest and recuperate. Due to these restrictions, particularly after the longer driving days, your leader may not be able to join you for some of the daily activities or may need to tend to other work duties.

Adult min age:
16
Min group size:
6
Max group size:
13

Itinerary

Land Only

Start City:
Las Vegas
End City:
Las Vegas

Land Only Itinerary

  • Day 1

    Start Las Vegas.

    Welcome to the 'Neon City' in the Nevada desert, a place everyone should experience at least once in their life. The opportunities here are endless and you'll have a full day to explore, so why not try your luck on the tables, see one of the many world-class shows or sample an all-American buffet? Join us at 18:00 hrs for a welcome meeting with your group and tour leader. Afterwards you're free to take in the cityscape at night or wander along The Strip.

    Optional Activities:
    Helicopter flight US$104

    Accommodation: OYO Las Vegas Hotel & Casino (or similar)

  • Day 2

    Las Vegas to Zion National Park.

    Zion effortlessly mixes peaceful beauty with powerful landscapes and the tree lined Virgin River supports fragile flora and fauna as it meanders below massive, cathedral-like sandstone walls. Zion Canyon was named by the early Mormon settlers of Utah who thought of it as their 'promised land' and it offers some of the best hiking in the Southwest USA. 

    Accommodation: La Quinta Inn & Suites (or similar)

  • Day 3

    Zion National Park.

    You have a full day to further explore the delights of Zion National Park. There are various hikes to choose from, ranging from easy to strenuous. Of all the walks within the park, one you simply must do is the famous and challenging hike to Angels Landing. Once you've conquered this epic trail you'll be greeted with one of the most breathtaking panoramas you've ever laid eyes on. For a less strenuous walk, take one of the short hikes from the valley floor to view the Lower Emerald Pools then continue on to the sparkling Upper Emerald Pools, passing a waterfall along the way to discover Zion's 'beach'. Cool off from the summer sun by exploring the riverside walk section of the Virgin River. If weather conditions permit, you may choose to hike deep into the Zion Narrows. Staying dry is not an option as you wade through the Virgin River between towering walls. The cool waters and the shadow of the canyon can provide a much-needed respite from the scorching sun. 

    Accommodation: La Quinta Inn & Suites (or similar)

    Meals included:
    Breakfast
  • Day 4

    Bryce Canyon National Park.

    Leaving Zion National Park, you climb in elevation to almost 8,296 feet and traverse a high plateau to Bryce Canyon National Park. "Mysterious", "breathtaking" and "out of this world" are just a few of the descriptions offered by past visitors to describe this fascinating natural amphitheatre of pink, orange and white sandstone spires, known locally as hoodoos.

    There are a variety of scenic overlooks and trails that range from easy to moderate in difficulty. The Navajo or Peek-a-Boo Loop trails will enable you to hike right in amongst these unique rock formations. Wherever you walk, you'll encounter a kaleidoscope of colours and a fantasy land of rock spires that'll leave you mesmerised. For the photographers, you may prefer to remain on the rim and photograph the ever-changing shadows and hues as the sun makes its way across the wide-open sky. These are the picture-perfect moments you've been waiting for. 

    Optional Activities:
    Western horseback riding US$65-$90

    Accommodation: Best Western Plus Ruby's Inn (or similar)

    Meals included:
    Breakfast
  • Day 5

    Monument Valley.

    Today you travel southeast along the border of Utah and Arizona and make a stop at the immense Glen Canyon Dam en route to Monument Valley in the heart of the Navajo Nation. This is sacred land to those who call it home and the red sandstone monoliths and spectacular sunsets and sunrises have been the backdrop to countless Westerns. Explore the incredible array of rock formations on an included guided back roads tour to learn the magic and myth of the rich Native American culture. 

    Accommodation: Kayenta Monument Valley Inn (or similar) 

  • Days 6-7

    Grand Canyon National Park.

    Continue south through the Navajo Reservation to the Cameron Trading Post to shop for local jewellery, crafts and cultural souvenirs. Traverse the eastern entrance of the mighty Grand Canyon where you'll catch your first glimpse of it at Desert View. This incredible spectacle is difficult to comprehend, even as you stand at the rim or hike down into the canyon. Carved over several millennia, this massive wonder of nature is 277 miles (445km) long, up to 18 miles (29km) wide and over one mile (1.6km) deep. Snaking through the canyon floor is the mighty Colorado River, which runs 1450 miles (2330 km) through seven US states and two Mexican states.

    In your free time, we highly recommend a scenic helicopter flight over the canyon, offering perspectives you simply can't see by just visiting on foot. Alternatively, stroll the easy meandering South Rim Trail, hike your way down the more challenging trail to Plateau Point, or simply relax at the canyon's edge and enjoy a spectacular sunset over one of the world's most fantastic natural wonders. 

    Optional Activities:
    Helicopter flight US$289 

    Accommodation: Yavapai Lodge (or similar)

  • Day 8

    Route 66 - Las Vegas.

    From the epic Grand Canyon, you'll travel onto Seligman, where you'll stop for an optional lunch at the Snow Cap Diner along a section of the iconic Route 66. Prepare to be dazzled all over again by the bright lights of Las Vegas - a memorable end to a fantastic eight days!

    This tour ends at our gateway hotel at approximately 17:00 hrs. We recommend booking post-tour accommodation if time allows. If you are planning to fly tonight, please do not book a flight that departs before 21:00 hrs. 

Accommodation

Hotels

Hotel accommodation will be in clean, comfortable hotels with en-suite bathroom facilities, chosen for their friendly atmosphere and proximity to the highlights of the region. You will be roomed with a fellow passenger of the same sex on a twin share basis (two people per room) unless you are travelling as a couple.

There are no compulsory single supplements on our tours, however if you’d like your own space, you can request a single room for an additional fee.

Where a single supplement is available, paying for a single will only guarantee a room for single use. It does not necessarily mean a twin or double room will be provided for sole occupancy.

Please note that a member of the group may be allocated a single room by default if the make-up of the group means there isn’t anyone for them to share with. Paying the supplement in advance is the only way to guarantee a single room.

Single supplements cannot be refunded retrospectively.

Accommodation - Pre trip

This tour begins and ends at a gateway hotel, which is conveniently located in the departure and arrival cities. We offer you the option to book additional hotel nights before or after your tour however, they should be booked prior to departure with our reservations team. See below for joining and end hotel details.

Please note some hotels may take a debit or credit card as a deposit at check in. They may also take an amount to cover incidentals. Funds can be held until check out at which time the amount actually incurred will be charged. Please clarify with the hotel when you check out that all deposits will be refunded as promptly as possible.

Single supplement from £450.00

Food & Transport

Eating & Drinking

There are two breakfasts included on this trip

Most meals will be taken in local restaurants. To help you budget for your meals on average hotel breakfasts cost from US$6-12, lunches from US$8-15 and dinners from US$13-30; this does not include alcoholic beverages. Wine costs approximately US$5 per glass and beer US$4 per bottle. Please also be aware that a tip of approximately 15%-20% is added to group meals in North American restaurants. Applicable taxes will also be added to all listed menu prices.

Your tour leader may offer your group the option to operate a ‘lunch only’ food kitty, this has proven to be a popular alternative to three daily restaurant meals. Leaders will explain this option while on your tour, and the whole group will have to agree for this system to run.

Vegetarians and vegans can be well catered for on this holiday - please do inform us before departure of any special dietary requests so that our local team can be well prepared. We will do all we can to accommodate for various other dietary requirements but in certain parts of North America certain food types can be limited.

Transportation

Travel in a private air-conditioned 15-seater vehicle driven by your tour guide. All luggage and equipment are stored in a specially designed trailer or storage area to maximise comfort in the vehicle. Every group is virtually self-sufficient and are able to explore the backroads where the crowds can’t go. vehicles are equipped with CD systems (often iPod compatible), are Bluetooth compatible, and have large windows for a more enjoyable journey.

Weather & Seasonality

Weather Information

The West is known for its very dry spring, summer and autumn weather and outstanding blue, sunny skies. Being as far south as southern Europe and Northern Africa, temperatures are normally much warmer than in northern Europe. However, temperatures vary greatly depending on the elevation you are at. Generally, the higher the elevation, the cooler the temperature. Spring and autumn will offer perfect hiking days in the deserts and cooler days at higher elevations. In summer, Bryce and the Grand Canyon offer pleasant temperatures ideal for hiking whereas some of the deserts might experience hotter temperatures. On warmer days, the leader will opt for early morning and late afternoon walks, leaving time for mid-day rest. Please note the hottest time of day in the deserts is actually 15:00 hrs. Most nights will be mild to warm. In the summer months you should be prepared for afternoon thunderstorms. Spring offers stunning displays of desert wildflowers, Summer offers mountain wildflowers and in Autumn the tree colours are beautiful.

Joining Instructions

You will need to make your own way to the joining hotel for your tour. 

You are free to arrive at any time on day one of your tour but please ensure you leave plenty of time to reach your joining hotel and attend your welcome meeting. Details on the time and specific location of your meeting will be available early on the arrival day. During this evening meeting you will meet your tour guide and fellow travellers and also spend a few minutes filling out necessary paperwork, so please bring your insurance documents, passport and tour documentation to the meeting.

ARRIVAL COMPLICATIONS

Sometimes the unexpected can happen; your plane may be delayed or you may even miss it! If you have missed your tour departure, first check with the hotel to see if your tour guide has left you a message. If not, call the relevant emergency number and speak to our staff who will be happy to help you catch up with the group. Please note that you are responsible for any extra travelling expenses incurred due to you missing your tour’s departure, so please be on time.

FINISHING POINT

LAS VEGAS - Bally's Hotel
3645 S. Las Vegas Blvd, Las Vegas, NV

Your tour will end upon arrival at the above hotel, which will be around 17:00 hrs on the final day. Some tour activities scheduled for the last day may preclude an earlier arrival at the end point hotel, so you should not book a flight that leaves prior to 21:00 hrs. You will be responsible for any transportation costs if you have to arrive for an earlier flight and you must make us aware of this well in advance of your tour departing. If you require accommodation for the last night, it is essential that you book this before your tour departs.

Full joining instructions including local emergency numbers will be sent to you as part of our Final Joining Instructions. If you do not receive these at least a week before departure, or require them earlier, please contact our office or your travel agent.

Full joining instructions including local emergency numbers will be sent to you as part of our Final Joining Instructions. If you do not receive these at least a week before departure, or require them earlier please contact our office or your travel agent.

Location start:
Las Vegas
Location end:
Las Vegas

What to Take

Essential Equipment

Please keep in mind that our dress tends to be informal. It is advised that you take a practical selection of clothes for both warm and cool climates to suit the season. Please see the temperature guide showing the highs and lows that can be expected in key locations that your tour visits. However please remember that this is just a guide and you may encounter a wide variety of temperatures en route due to altitude and unforeseen weather conditions - so it’s best to be prepared!

Besides your essential clothing, here’s a checklist of other items you should take:
• Small day pack
• Waterproof jacket
• Warm sweater / fleece
• Casual ‘evening out’ clothes
• Hiking shoes / boots
• Thick walking socks
• Blister packs and plasters
• Hiking poles
• Comfortable day shoes
• Sandals or flip-flops
• Warm hat / gloves
• Swim wear
• Sun hat / sunglasses
• Camera / binoculars
• SD memory card / Spare camera batteries
• Water bottle
• Small flashlight / head torch
• Sunscreen / insect repellent (20% DEET)
• Travel power adaptor
• Toiletries / personal medicine
Please note airlines have various rules on what can be carried in your luggage - if in doubt check with your airline before travelling.

FOOTWEAR
We recommend walking shoes/boots, as comfortable shoes with good ankle support will make all walking more enjoyable. If you do not own a pair, then sports trainers will suffice although this is a personal choice. If you intend to do some walking, it is recommended to bring thick walking socks for comfort.

CLOTHES WASHING
You will have the opportunity to wash your clothes whilst you are on tour, and this can often be done at the campsite or in town. Ask your tour leader for local information.

LUGGAGE ALLOWANCE
One suitcase, soft holdall or rucksack (23kg maximum) per person. A small daypack and camera can also be carried in the van. Before you travel, please check the baggage allowance with the airline you’re flying with as this may be less than 23kg.
We are unable to offer luggage storage facilities however, some of our pre and post tour hotels will provide this service although there may be a charge. Please contact the hotels directly for further information.

Aerial view of Las Vegas strip in Nevada

Practical Information

Passport

USA

All nationalities require a full passport that must be valid for the intended length of stay. It is your responsibility to have the correct personal documents and to obtain your own visa, if one is necessary, in accordance with the regulations of the country you are to visit. The information below is primarily for UK passport holders, and other nationalities should check with their travel agent or the relevant embassies. We are not responsible for the actions of local immigration and customs officials, whether at points of entry or otherwise, and any subsequent effects.

Visa

USA

British, New Zealand, Swiss and most EU passport holders do not need a visa (and enter the country under the Visa Waiver Program), provided they are in possession of an onward air ticket when entering the USA. Visas for the USA are required by some nationalities and it is always best to check with the relevant embassies. All passengers travelling to and from the U.S. under the Visa Waiver Program (VWP) are required to hold a machine-readable passport (MRP). A MRP has the holder's personal details, e.g. name, date of birth, nationality and their passport number contained in two lines of text at the base of the photo page. This text may be read by machine. The US now charges $14 for the visa waiver program and must be paid by credit card. The US authorities have introduced a mandatory requirement for all passengers travelling under the Visa Waiver Programme to register for an Electronic Travel Authority. As of 21 January 2016, any person who has travelled to Iran, Iraq, Sudan, Syria, Libya, Somalia, or Yemen since March 2011, or have dual nationalities of these countries, may no longer qualify for the VWP. For additional specifics about the VWP please consult the VWP information on the U.S. Embassy London website. More information and all necessary Internet links can be found on our USA visas page.

Visa regulations can change without notice: please check the current regulations in good time to obtain a visa if one is required.

Vaccination

USA

There are no mandatory vaccinations required for this trip.

Travel health can often be something people forget about before going away, but a little preparation and knowledge can go a long way to help you stay fit and healthy while abroad.

As we are not qualified to answer all your questions about travel health we strongly recommend you contact your Medical Professional or a Travel Health Clinic at least 8 weeks prior to departure for up-to-date information. Please note: vaccinations that are routinely recommended to residents of the UK, North America or Australasia are not considered to form part of the travel health advice, and you should ensure these are kept up to date where necessary.

For additional information please visit: https://travelhealthpro.org.uk/countries

Insurance - are you adequately covered?

It is a condition of joining any of our holidays that you must be fully insured against medical and personal accident risks (to include repatriation costs and air ambulance or helicopter rescue services where appropriate). On arrival in destination for your trip, you will be asked to present details to your leader or local representative of your policy.

If you are resident in the UK we strongly recommend the Exodus travel insurance policy, this is specifically designed to cover all activities on your trip. If arranging your own policy please ensure that you are covered for all activities that are part of the trip, optional activities that you intend to take part in and/or on high altitude itineraries, that you are covered up to the maximum altitude of the trip.

Local Time

USA's Timezone:
America/Los_Angeles PDT (GMT -07:00)

Electricity

USA's Electricity:

120 Volts. Plug types A & B; establishments take two flat parallel pin plugs.

Money

USA's Currency

The national currency of USA is the Dollar (USD), with an exchange rate at the time of publication (June 2017) of approximately 1.3 to the GBP, 0.75 to the CAD, 1.12 to the EUR, 0.6 to the AUD and 0.57 to the NZD.

ATM Availability

ATM’s and cash machines are readily available throughout North America and major credit cards are widely accepted throughout the country. All ATMs in the USA charge to withdraw money (from $1-$5). In some off-the-beaten-track destinations ATM’s and cash machines may be limited. Please ensure that your credit or debit cards have international access and a PIN number to access your funds at the start of the tour. It is important you advise your bank prior to leaving your home country of your intended travel, so they do not block your card citing the reason as fraud.

Extra Expenses & Spending Money

We recommend you take at least US$50 dollars per day for meals not included in the tour, drinks, snacks and other incidentals. You should also budget for expected tipping, as well as for the optional activities that you would like to do. Guideline prices for the most popular optional activities are listed on our website.
We suggest you bring USD$150 with you in cash to have with at the beginning of your trip.

Tipping

Although it may not be customary in your country, it is normal and expected in North America to tip local guides, waiters, bar staff, taxi drivers and anyone who provides a service for you. Service workers are paid a low wage and depend on tips for their livelihood. It can be embarrassing if you’re confronted by a local who is expecting a tip and you are not aware of how much to offer. For this reason we have listed guideline prices below.

A 15-17% tip is standard in restaurants and you should also expect to tip $1 per drink in bars, $1-2 per bag for porters as will 10% for taxi drivers. It’s also typical to tip around 10% for local guides who provide optional activities.

Your tour leader will work long and hard for you during your tour and we recommend a discretionary tip of US$5-$10 per passenger per day if your leader’s performance meets or exceeds your expectations.

Hiker woman in Bryce Canyon hiking looking and enjoying view during her hike wearing hikers backpack. Bryce Canyon National Park landscape, Utah, United States.

Responsible Tourism

At Exodus we believe in the power of Responsible Travel.

Every time we travel, we are part of a global movement that creates jobs, builds more sustainable societies, encourages cultural understanding and safeguards common natural and cultural heritage. To learn more about what Responsible Travel means to Exodus click here… 

Exodus Community

Join the Exodus online community

Don't forget to visit the Community area on our website. You can view the range of Exodus videos and podcasts, read trip write-ups which have featured in the national media and take advantage of some special deals on travel gear and equipment.

In the Community Travel Forum you'll find the Departure Lounge where you can discuss your trip with fellow travellers before you depart. When you get back from your holiday remember to upload your images to the relevant trip page on our website. This helps other people see what our holidays are really like and you'll be entered automatically into our monthly photo competition.

To make full use of the Community you'll need to join My Exodus. It's free, registration is simple and easy, so what are you waiting for?

Important Information

On all guided trips

Although our leaders are well trained to deal with different capabilities, if they have any concerns about someone’s ability to safely partake in an activity, or their impact on other people’s enjoyment, we authorise them to take necessary action which, in some circumstances, may involve asking someone to miss that activity.

Although rarely enforced, by booking this trip you agree to section 14 of our Booking Conditions which clearly states that our leaders have the authority to do this. In these circumstances we will ensure anyone sitting out is safely provided for and offered alternative options where possible. Refunds will not be provided for activities missed and customers may be liable for additional costs incurred.

On all trips

In booking this trip you should be confident in your ability to participate in all activities described in these Trip Notes. If you have any doubt about your suitability you should call the Exodus office and ask to speak to one of the experts on this itinerary.

 

Every time that you travel abroad you should take the time to read the warnings in the essential information in the brochure.

Full joining instructions including local emergency numbers, and details of how to reach the start point, will be sent to you approximately 2 to 3 weeks prior to departure. If you do not receive these at least a week before departure, or require them earlier please contact our office or your travel agent.

The information in these Trip Notes is given in good faith. Where differences exist between the Trip Notes and our current brochure or website, the Trip Notes supersede the brochure and website. All holidays can be subject to unexpected changes; in order to enjoy them you should be prepared to be flexible where necessary. Occasionally, as stated in our brochure, it may not be possible to follow the itinerary as planned. This may be for a variety of reasons - climatic, political, physical or other. In these circumstances we will make the best possible alternative arrangements that maintain the integrity of the original itinerary.

As fuel prices, airport taxes and exchange rates fluctuate, and airlines manage their rates to match demand, it is proving harder than ever to guarantee our Flight Inclusive prices. Although we endeavour to keep our website as accurate as possible, daily fluctuations mean that our Flight Inclusive price may be out of date. For accurate prices we recommend that you contact one of our Travel Experts, or your Travel Agent.

TRAVEL AWARE – STAY SAFE & HEALTHY ABROAD

 

The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office and the NHS have up-to-date advice on staying safe and healthy abroad. For more on security, local laws, plus passport and visa information, see https://travelaware.campaign.gov.uk/

Keep informed of current travel health news by visiting https://travelhealthpro.org.uk/

Advice can change so check regularly for updates.

For all latest travel information about your holiday, please visit our Travel Safety Advice page.

Important Notes

In line with our ‘book and travel with confidence’ promise which allows you to cancel free of charge up to 42 days prior to departure, or transfer to another trip free of charge up to 21 days prior to your trip starting in country, please be aware that this excludes ‘irrecoverable costs’. Details can be found here: https://www.exodus.co.uk/about-exodus/exodus-booking-conditions

For this trip the irrecoverable costs related to in-country operations are outlined below, if booking flight inclusive your sales agent will confirm the terms related to your international flights at the time of booking.

Accommodation £606 / US$748 / AU$1047 / €651

Costs are accurate at time of writing in September 2021

How to Book

1. Check availability

Go online to check availability, or contact us by phone or email.

2. Secure your place

You can provisionally hold a place on this trip, usually for between three and seven days.

3. Complete your booking and payment

When you're ready to book, go to our website for online bookings, book over the phone or you can complete a booking form (available online or on request by calling us). We accept all major credit and debit cards, or you can pay be cheque. Book with confidence: Exodus is fully licensed and bonded as a tour operator. We hold Air Traffic Organisers Licence (ATOL) number 2582 issued and bonded with the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). We are also bonded to the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and we are members of the Federation of Tour Operators (FTO) and ABTA ‐ The Travel Association. This means you can book your Exodus holiday with confidence, as all monies paid to us for your trip are fully protected.

TRIP NOTE VALIDITY

These Trip Notes are valid from the "Current as" date on page one. They will occasionally be updated post booking and pre-departure; if there are any updates that significantly impact the inclusions or itinerary bookers will be written to separately. All customers will also receive a link to the most up-to-date version of the Trip Notes with their Final Joining Instructions pre-travel.