Independence Monument, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan

The Five Stans of the Silk Road

23 days
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Way to Travel:
Guided Group
New Cultural Holidays
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5 countries, 3 weeks, 1 epic trip along the Silk Road through the heart of Central Asia.

Vast deserts, rolling steppe, fertile valleys and majestic mountains form the backdrop to the five former Soviet republics of Central Asia which are commonly known as the five Stans. Amongst this changing and varied landscape are traditional villages, ancient towns and modern cities which tell a tale of advancing Greek and Persian armies, marauding Mongolian hordes, traders selling their wares along the Silk Road, philosophers, astronomers, Communist experiments and post-Soviet eccentrics. Journey past giant burning gas pits, intrinsically tiled mosques, alpine lakes bordered by yurt camps, grand monuments, rural villages and colourful markets on this epic trip through the heart of Central Asia.


  • ‘Door to Hell’ giant burning gas pit at Darwaza
  • Islamic architecture and ancient ruins in the great Silk Road towns and cities
  • Villages and lakes of the Fann and Tien Shan Mountains
  • Post Soviet grand monuments
  • History of traders, preachers and invaders


Key information

  • 23 days land only / flight inclusive
  • Travel by minibus
  • 15 nights hotels, 4 nights home stays, 2 nights yurts and 1 night guest house
  • All breakfasts, 3 lunches and 8 dinners included
  • Single supplement available

What's included

  • All accommodation
  • All transport and listed activities
  • Tour leader throughout (separate leaders in different countries)
  • All breakfasts, 3 lunches and 8 dinners
  • Flights from London (if booking incl. flights)
  • Arrival & departure transfers

What's not included

  • Travel Insurance
  • Single accommodation (available on request)
  • Visas or vaccinations
Call for general departures:
020 8772 3936
Call for tailormade trips:
+44 (0)20 8772 3874
Trip Notes

Click on the button below for detailed Trip Notes containing all the particulars about this trip, including kit lists and practical information.

Note: these can vary by departure; you can check out the specific Trip Notes for your chosen adventure on the dates & prices page.

Yard of Poi Kalyan oriental complex at sunset. View from the gate. Bukhara

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Every time we travel, we are part of a global movement that creates jobs, builds more sustainable societies, encourages cultural understanding and safeguards common natural and cultural heritage. To learn more about what Responsible Travel means to Exodus click here


  • Day 1

    Fly to Ashgabat

    Fly to Ashgabat. The group flights normally arrive very late at night. Transfer to the hotel.

    Hotel Ak Altyn or similar

  • Day 2

    Explore Ashgabat

    Ashgabat holds the world record for the most white marble buildings in the world. In the post-soviet era successive Turkmen leaders have invested into these impressive buildings as a show of the country’s strength and grandeur and can make for quite a surreal experience. Ashgabat has been described as Pyongyang meets Las Vegas and you can see why.
    We visit some of the city’s greatest monuments, buildings and fountains including Ertogrul Gazy Mosque, Independence Park, the Neutrality Arch and the National Museum.
    Hotel Ak Altyn or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 3

    Nisa and Darvaza

    Today is a long day trip out of the city. Our first stop, on the outskirts of Ashgabat, is the ancient Persian era fortress of Nisa. A former capital of the Persian Parthian Empire which controlled much of the region from Iraq to Pakistan 2000 years ago, the ruins of Nisa were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007.
    We later head north into the Karakum Desert some 260kms to one of the world’s more unusual sites, a massive burning gas crater in the middle of nowhere in Darvaza. In the 1970s Soviet engineers looking for natural gas deposits came across this area. Attempting to assess the amount of gas present in this pocket they set up a drill. Shortly after the area under the drill collapsed exposing a big crater and seeping methane gas. The engineers decided to set the gas alight in the belief that it would burn off within a few weeks. Over 45 years later the crater is still burning.
    The sight of a big burning crater in the middle of the desert after the sun goes down is quite an experience and likely to be unlike anything else you’ve come across.
    We have dinner near the crater before returning to Ashgabat after dark, arriving back at the hotel in the late evening.
    If you do not want to travel so far to go see the incredible burning crater at Darvaza it is possible to stay behind in Ashgabat.

    Hotel Ak Altyn or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast Dinner
  • Day 4

    To Mary

    Leaving the Turkmen capital behind we start our journey east along one of the Silk Road routes of old. Our destination today is Mary, about 5hrs away (plus stops). A short distance outside Ashgabat we make our first stop at the 15th century Anau Mosque which is located on the edge of a Bronze-age site.
    From here we continue to the remains of the Silk Road era town of Abiverd. The settlement, which was completely abandoned for about three centuries, was once a vibrant and important centre. The 12th Century city is about 130kms, two hours, from Ashgabat and makes for an interesting stop and a good opportunity stretch our legs.
    As we continue on the way to Mary look out for camels and small dusty desert towns.
    Eventually reaching Mary we have a later afternoon/early evening city tour taking in the Central Bazaar, Juma Mosque and Russian Orthodox Church.
    Hotel Mary or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 5

    Merv and to Bukhara, Uzbekistan

    Possibly the largest city in the world in its heyday, Merv was raised to the ground by Genghis Khan and his Mongolian hordes in 1221. It is believe 700,000 people lost their lives when the city was destroyed; It never recovered.

    Today, this UNESCO site is Turkmenistan’s most important historical site and we take the time to visit it before continuing to the border about 5.5hrs (245kms) away where we say goodbye to our Turkmen leader. Crossing the border from Turkmenistan to Uzbekistan can take about 1.5hrs and we meet our Uzbek leader on the other side. From here it’s a further 1.5hr (100kms) to one of the great Silk Road cities, Bukhara. Please expect to have a very late lunch today (around 16h00) so make sure to have snacks handy.

    Hotel Kasara or Similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 6


    2000 year old Bukhara has an old centre which evokes the many centuries of traders and travellers who’ve come through here on their way between the Mediterranean and China. We spend the day exploring this fascinating Silk Road city including at its heart the historic Lyabi Khauz architectural complex with the oldest reflection pool in Central Asia surrounded by medieval buildings including the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah and Khanaka with its façade of intrinsic mosaics. We also visit the Poi Kalyan Complex which includes the 48m high Kalyan Minaret which has come to symbolise the city, and the Kalyan Mosque with 288 domes covering galleries.

    Hotel Kavsar or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 7

    Bukhara - to Samarkand

    This morning we uncover more of Bukhara’s fascinating history and culture as we explore the Samanid’s Mausoleum, the Ark Citadel, Chor- Minor, the original building of four minarets and oldest residence of te Emirs. We also take in the Sitorai-Mohl-Hosa Palace, Bukhara’s Emirs’ summer palace. After lunch we have a 4-5hrs (300kms) drive to the other great Silk Road city, Samarkand.

    Kavsar Hotel or similira

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 8

    Full day site-seeing in Samarkand

    Possibly the most famous of the Silk Road cities, Samarkand blue tiled buildings can dazzle in the bright sun. Most impressive is one of the World’s great squares – Registan Square, surrounded on three sides by the madrassahs of Ulugh Beg, Sher-Dor and Tilya-Kori. It is said that the square and its madrassahs influenced other sites from the great square in Isfahan to the Taj Mahal in Agra. The city was the capital of the great Tamerlane and we spend the day visiting a number of Tamerlane era sites including the Gur-Emir Mausoleum, Ulugh Beg’s observatory, the gigantic cathedral mosque Bibi Khanum as well as the impressive Necropolis.

    Hotel Dilshoda or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 9

    Shakhrisabz and Termez.

    A long day ahead but combining driving with site-seeing.

    The day starts with a 3hr transfer to the town of Shakhrisabz. The Timurin (from the reign of Tamerlane) city boasts a number of important historic monuments including the ruins of the Ak Saray Palace, the Doruttilyavat Ensemble, the Kok Gumbaz Mosque and others mostly from dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries. The city’s historic centre is on the UNESCO list of World Heritage in Danger.

    After exploring Shakhrisabz’ sites we continue south heading towards the Silk Road city of Termez, about 5hrs away. On the way we make stops as the village of Jarkurgan, famed for its medieval minaret as well as the Oasis of Sayrob.

    We eventually arrive at Termez early evening.

    Hotel Meredian Termez or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 10

    Termez city tour.

    The region around Termez is unusual for the Stans in that it is home to Buddhist ancestry and relics as well some more traditional Silk Road sites and interesting museums. We spend the day exploring this city often overlooked by visitors (due to its remote location) including the 1st century Fayaz-tepe Buddhism Complex; the 9th and 10th century Samanid Sultan Saodat Mausoleum. 3kms outside of town is the Kyrk Kyz Farmstead (meaning forty girls) which at times was an abbey, caravanserai or palace. Further out of town (about 40kms) is the oldest site in Uzbekistan dating back to the 4th Century BC: Kampyr-Tepe. We visit the ruins of the ancient settlement before returning to Termez in order to visit the historical museum.

    Hotel Meredian Termez or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 11

    Cross into Tajikistan; on to Dushanbe.

    Today we head to country no. 3, Tajikistan. Upon arrival at the border at Saryosiyo we say good bye to our Uzbek leader and upon crossing are greeted by our Tajik leader. The drive from Termez to Dushanbe is 205km and takes about 5 or 6 hours (depending on border crossing time).

    Dushanbe's origins probably stretch back 3,000 years though the city grew under Soviet rule as the capital for the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, a part of the Uzbek USSR. Upon arrival in the Tajik capital we have a city tour taking Independence Sq., the Samany Monument (to the founder of the Tajik Government), Rudaki Ave. and a historical museum.

    Hotel Atlas or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 12

    Into the Fann Mountains and Iskanderkul Lake.

    The Fann Mountains are one of two of Tajikistan great ranges (along with the Pamirs) and have peaks towering up to 5,489m. Our destination (about 4hrs from Dushanbe) is Iskanderkul Lake (named after Alexander the Great and thought to be the final resting place of the conqueror’s beloved horse, Bucephalus) situated at 2,200m. This afternoon we explore the area around the lake including visiting Tajikistan’s biggest waterfall, affectionately called ‘Tajikistan Niagara’ and standing at 40m. The glacial lake itself is often claimed to be the jewel of the Fann Mountains and one of the most beautiful in the former Soviet Union.

    Tonight we spend the night in a basic homestay and some of the rooms are triples. Every effort is made to ensure that men and women not travelling together do not have to share a room but as rooms are limited this cannot be guaranteed. There are shared bathrooms and toilets (some indoor and some outdoor).

    Sarytag Homestay

    Meals included: Breakfast Dinner
  • Day 13

    Istravashan and Khujand

    Leaving the Fann Mountains behind we make our way into Tajikistan industrial and agricultural heartland around the city of Khujand (about 4hrs drive). On the way we visit the town of Istravashan founded by the Persian king Kier in the 6th century where we visit the old city with its bazaar and the Kok-Gumbaz mosque and madrassah.

    Whilst Khujand, today, is not the most attractive of cities it has a long history. Believed to be one of the oldest in Central Asia it was, over the centuries, attacked by successive armies of Alexander the Great, Arab invaders and the marauding hordes of Genghis Khan as well as being an important stop on along the Silk Road. There are still traces of the city’s glory days and take in a tour of the sites including the Sheikh Maslikhiddin Mausoleum and mosque, the Payshhambe bazaar and Urumkhodjaev family country estate, a copy of the Russian tsarist palace of Petergof.

    Khudjand Delux Hotel or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 14

    Fergahana Valley in Uzbekistan

    We return to Uzbekistan via the border crossing at Andurkhan where we say goodbye to our Tajik crew and re-join the Uzbeks.

    The total driving time to Ferghana town is about 5hrs from Khujand but we make a number of stops along the way. The first of these is at Kokand which was the capital of the 19th century Kokand Khanate. We visit the Khudoyar-Khan Palace (1871) which houses a local museum, the Norbuta-Biy Madrassah and the Modarikhon Mausoleum.

    From here we move on to the small village of Rishtan which is famous for potters’ dynasties and ceramics masters. We visit a local ceramics studio and get a demonstration of the craft before having the opportunity to buy some of the iconic earthenware.

    Our final stop is at Marghilan where we visit a local silk factory and learn about the material which has given its name to the greatest trade route in history.

    Eventually we arrive in Ferghana town where we spend the night.

    Hotel Club 777 or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 15

    To Osh and Arslan Bob in Kyrgyzstan

    A short drive gets us to our next border crossing and country number 4. After meeting our Kyrgyz leader we head into nearby Osh, Kyrgyzstan’s second city. Our exploration of the city starts with a visit to Central Asia’s largest market – the Osh Bazaar, from here we visit the sacred Sulayman Mount, a holy Muslim site (and burial place of the prophet Sulayman (Solomon), central point on the Silk Road and World Heritage site. As well as a small museum and 15th century church there are also great views over the city and valley below from here.

    Later, this afternoon, we leave the city behind and head for Arslanbob Nature Reserve (about 3.5hrs away). The village of Arslanbob is located up in the mountains at around 1,600m (though the top and bottom of the village vary a lot in altitude) and is surrounded by ancient walnut forests believed to be the largest in the world. Depending on what time we arrive we may go for a walk to a nearby waterfall.

    We spend the next two nights in a basic homestay with outside drop-toilets and outside showers (normally with hot water).


    Meals included: Breakfast Dinner
  • Day 16

    Full day in Arslan Bob

    After quite a few days of moving every day and covering a lot of ground to day is a day to relax in the picturesque village of Arslan Bob and its surrounding valley and walnut forests. We take things easy and go for a walk in the surrounding countryside.  


    Meals included: Breakfast Lunch Dinner
  • Day 17

    Chychkn Gorge

    Our journey today takes us through the central Tien Shan Mountains as we drive through picturesque canyons and gorges and around Toktogul Reservoir. Eventually we reach Chychkan Gorge with its fir and juniper trees. Here we spend the night in a simple guest house with en suite rooms on the banks of a rushing river.

    Oson Guest House

    Meals included: Breakfast Dinner
  • Day 18

    Kyzyl Oi Village

    Continuing our crossing of Central Kyrgyzstan we head to the village of Kyzyl Oi, which translates as ‘Red Bowl’ and is so named because of the red cliffs surrounding the village as a bowl and which’s clay is used to construct its dwellings. The surrounding mountains here are hues of red and brown and particularly attractive in the late afternoon and early morning sun. The village itself dates from before the Great October Soviet Socialist Revolution and has kept its distinctive Central Asia character. Whilst the valley opens out, the village itself is located in a narrow gorge on the banks of the powerful Kekermeren River.

    Upon arrival there is some free time to explore the village and surrounding area or interact with the local families in whose homestays we will be spending the night.


    Meals included: Breakfast Dinner
  • Days 19-20

    To Son Kul Lake

    Leaving the gorges behind we head towards the high pastures surrounding Son Kul Lake. Considered by many to be Jewel in the Kyrygz crown for natural beauty, this is a land of nomadic shepherds caring for their flocks. Whilst today yurt camps have multiplied around the lake, the people who tend these camps still often tend their flocks as well and sheep and cattle dot the jailoo (high mountain pastures) cared for by men on horseback. The lake’s name means ‘the last lake’ and sat at 3,016m it’s easy to see where the name comes from.

    Whilst here we have a full day to relax taking in the beauty of the landscape, go for a hike, go horseriding or spend time with the Kyrgyz families and get a taste of airan (yogurt) and kumis (a natural drink made from fermented mare’s milk).

    We experience a bit of the nomad life as we stay in a yurt camp. One yurt is set up as a ‘banya’ tent (banyas are popular within the former Soviet Union and is best translated in this case a bathhouse). The banya tent has hot water to wash with but this is ‘bucket-shower’ style rather than actual shower.

    Yurt Camp

    Meals included: Breakfast Lunch Dinner
  • Day 21


    Leaving the high mountains which characterise Kyrgyzstan behind we make our way to the Republic’s capital city, Bishkek (about 6hrs drive). The former soviet city is going through a transformation with cafes and trendy bars opening. Upon arrival we have a tour of some of the city’s main sites around the main square, Alatoo Square. We visit the Museum of History and the Manas Ethnographical Complex (named after Kyrgyzstan’s most famous hero of lore, Manas) and have a bit of time for souvenir shopping or relaxing.

    Asia Mountains Hotel or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 22

    Almaty, Kazakhstan

    A mere 4hrs from the Kyrgyz capital city (depending on border crossing times) is Almaty, the former Kazakh capital city and the biggest city in the 5th country on our trip. We spend the morning driving to what is considered Central Asia’s most European city and set off on a city tour after lunch. We take in the Panfilovs Park with the Piously-Voznesenskiy Orthodox Cathedral (1907) which is constructed without the use of any nails; a memorial to victims of WW2, the Republic Square and the high mountain dam of Modeo on the outskirts of town, home to a popular speed-skating rink.

    Kazjol Hotel or similar

    Meals included: Breakfast
  • Day 23

    End Almaty

    Those on the group flights will be taken to the airport in time for their flight. If you’re continuing on to the Astana extension you will be taken to the airport in time for the internal flight to the Kazakh capital. Land only passengers, the tour ends after breakfast.  

    Meals included: Breakfast
Trip Notes

Click on the button below for detailed Trip Notes containing all the particulars about this trip, including kit lists and practical information.

Note: these can vary by departure; you can check out the specific Trip Notes for your chosen adventure on the dates & prices page.

Extend Your Trip

Astana Extension

Code: XXK

Extend your adventure in Kazakhstan and explore it's relatively new capital city. 

Rising out of the Central Asian steppe, Kazakhstan’s glitzy capital city is unlike any other. Built from scratch by President Nazarbayev, and paid for by gas and oil money, the city is a surreal modernist dream. Skyscrapers vie for your attention and the bright coloured lights are reminiscent of a futuristic sci-fi movie. 

The detailed itinerary can be found here.

Please ask your sales consultant for more details.

Essential Info



All nationalities require a full passport that must be valid for 6 months beyond the intended length of stay. It is your responsibility to have the correct personal documents and to obtain your own visa, if one is necessary, in accordance with the regulations of the country you are to visit. The information below is primarily for UK passport holders, and other nationalities should check with their travel agent or the relevant embassies. We are not responsible for the actions of local immigration and customs officials, whether at points of entry or otherwise, and any subsequent effects.

All passengers require a visa for Uzbekistan. Clients from the UK, Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, France, Japan, Spain and Switzerland no longer need an authorisation letter first to obtain a visa. Should you need an authorisation letter please contact Exodus at least 8 weeks before departure as we can arrange this for you through our local operator.

For more information on the Uzbekistan Visa see our Visa Information Sheet ( )

PLEASE NOTE: When you arrive in Uzbekistan you will be given 2 currency declaration forms. Fill both forms in, they will keep one and hand one back. Hold on to that form as you will have to show it when you leave Uzbekistan. You'll also have to fill in a new currency declaration form and must leave with less money than when you arrived. They may check. You will also be given a receipt from each hotel you stay in. Please hold on to these as well as they may be checked when you leave.

There has also been greater restrictions on bringing medicine into Uzbekistan. If you have any special medicine we recommend you check with the Uzbekistan Embassy about allowed quantities. You should also bring copies of your prescriptions and declare them upon arrival. Visa regulations can change without notice: please check the current regulations in good time to obtain a visa if one is required.


British, most European and most other nationalities, including Australians, New Zealanders, Americans and Canadians do not require visas for visits of under 60 days. All other nationalities should contact the nearest Kyrgyzstan Embassy if in doubt.

Visa Kazakhstan

A number of countries including the UK, USA, Australia, Canada, New Zealand Germany, Belgium and France can enter Kazakhstan for up to 30 days without a visa.


Everyone needs a passport with 6 months validity on it as well as a visa to enter Turkmenistan. A letter of invitation organised by the State Migration Service of Turkmenistan is necessary in order to obtain the visa and we can organise this through our partners. This allows you to obtain a visa on arrival at Ashgabat Airport. We will need the following information and documents to obtain the letter of invitation:

Last name:
First name(s):
Name of highest educational institution completed:
City and country of that institution:
Field of study:
Place of work:
Previous visits to Turkmenistan (dates, purposes):
Marital status:
Home address:

- Full colour scan of the photo page of your passport showing all 4 edges of the passport making sure no part of the passport has been cut by the scan. This scan must be sharp and clear, not checkered, glossy or blurry and must be in either JPEG or PDF format and between 250KB and 1MB.

- A passport photo – minimum 3x4cms and not a photoshop version of the photo from the passport. If necessary it is possible to send a photo taken with a digital camera or phone as long as it meets the above requirements and does not use flash or have any glass reflections making any part of the scan/photo unclear.

Once our partners have applied for the invitation letter it can take about month to get it. Once you have the invitation letter you just need to present it upon arrival at Ashgabat Airport and pay the visa and administration fees.  For UK citizens the visa fee for a visa up to 10 days is USD115 and the administration fee is USD4. For all other nationalities the visa fee for a visa up to 10 days is USD85 and the administration fee is USD4. 

Please note that Turkmenistan has a higher visa rejection rate than most countries. This is out of our control but we are able to reapply for the visa invitation letter, though only with the same information provided.

Please note that some medicines are banned in both Turkmenistan unless you are carrying a doctor's prescription. These include medicines which contain tramadol, morphin, opiates, codeine or similar components often found in pain killers.


The Tajikistan visa application process is fairly straight forward but does require a letter of invitation which we will obtain for you. In order to obtain the letter of invitation we will need a copy of your passport.

Once you have received your letter of invitation, you will have to do an online evisa application on

The evisa type you require is ‘individual’ and to the question regarding GBAO Permit pleas answer ‘NO’ (this is a permit to visit a semi-autonomous region which we do not go to).

You will then have to upload a copy of your passport and the invitation letter as an ‘optional document’. 



There are no mandatory vaccination requirements. Recommended vaccinations are: Polio, Tetanus, Diphtheria, Hepatitis A. The risk of malaria is slight but you may wish to consult your GP or travel health clinic for further advice.


No vaccinations are compulsory, but vaccination against typhoid, polio, tetanus, hepatitis A and Diptheria are recommended. The risk of Malaria is slight but you may wish to consult your GP or Travel Clinic for advice.


No vaccinations are compulsory, but vaccination against typhoid, polio, tetanus, hepatitis A and Diptheria are recommended.


There are no mandatory vaccination requirements. Recommended vaccinations are: Tetanus and Hepatitis A. The risk of malaria is slight but you may wish to consult your GP or travel health clinic for further advice.


There are no mandatory vaccination requirements. Recommended vaccinations are: Tetanus, Typhoid and Hepatitis A. The risk of malaria is slight but you may wish to consult your GP or travel health clinic for further advice.

Eating and Drinking

All breakfasts, 3 lunches and 8 dinners included

Common dishes in the region include shish-kebabs and plov which you’ll probably see plenty of. The kebabs can be from different meats including lamb and beef whilst plov is a rice based dish (variants elsewhere are known as pilaf or pilau rice). Another main food is bread, especially in Uzbekistan where it is baked and sold everywhere. There are normally a couple opportunities to try home-cooked meals. Tea is also plentiful, both black and green and is drunk with most meals as well as throughout the day. Please note that vegetarian food choices may be rather limited. If you are strictly vegetarian or have any specialist dietary requirements please notify us well in advance. In the region the availability of certain specialised products for restricted diets, e.g. gluten-free or dairy-free, is minimal or non-existent and we strongly recommend you bring these specialised dietary items from home.


Covering a large area varying from the deserts of Turkmenistan to the mountains of Kyrgyzstan the climate can change a lot. The summers (July and August) can be very hot in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan but fairly pleasant in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, whilst the Spring and Autumn  May/June and September/October) can be cooler in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan but more pleasant in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. As we visit regions ranging from deserts to high mountains you can expect temperatures in the 30s as well as close to freezing on the same trip and need to be prepared for both eventualities. Winters are very cold and harsh and some areas are impassable (especially to Sonkul in Kyrgyzstan) for most of the year which is why the season for this trip is relatively short lasting only from June to September.





Is this trip for you?

This trip covers a lot of distance within three weeks and there are a number of places where we only spend one night (especially during the middle section of the trip through Tajikistan and southern Kyrgyzstan).  Most drives tend to be 4-5 hrs with the odd drive taking 6hrs and a particularly long day from Samarkand to Termez which involves around 8hrs driving, though this is broken up with a stop at Shakhrisabz.

The countries visited on this trip don’t always have the best infrastructure and you shouldn’t expect the same comforts you would get at home. Most nights are in standard hotels, though we do also stay in local homestays, yurt camps and a guest house which will be more basic. Hot water is normally available but may not always be reliable; toilets may be squat toilets at times and toilets and/or showers may be outside on some of the more basic nights. Some nights you may end up having to share a room with more than one other person and whilst every effort is made to ensure that on such nights men and women who are not travelling together don’t have to share a room this cannot be guaranteed. On these nights single supplements do not apply. We stay in these places, however, as there is very limited options in some of the areas we visit.

Whilst this is not an active trip, the pace and distance covered can be tiring. There are also some occasions where we go on hikes, in particular in Kyrgyzstan. These hikes are not challenging and can vary depending on the preferences and abilities of the group, however.
Over a relatively short period, three weeks, this trip takes in a vast array of sites both cultural and natural and covers five fascinating countries which once shared a common history but which now are each developing in their own way.

Please note that smoking in public is illegal in Turkmenistan (though smoking in private is fine resulting with the situation where more people smoke indoors than outdoors) and you should not smoke outside the airport on arrival or in the street in Ashgabat. Also you can only bring 2 packs of cigarettes into Turkmenistan.

When visiting mosques and other religious buildings women should wear long skirts and have their shoulders covered, it is also advisable to bring a scarf and cover your head on such occasions. Knee-length skirts/dresses and shorts as well as sleeveless tops are fine in other circumstances.  

Given the bureaucracy in the region, in particular in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, we may be forced to change the route or activities due to government decisions which are beyond our control. 

It is also worth noting that you will have multiple leaders on this trip as you travel from one country to the next and the leaders are often not able to accompany you across the border so you will often leave the one leader at the entrance to the border and meet the next upon exiting the border. This can involve walking up about 1km between two countries’ immigration posts.  

Temperatures can vary from extremely hot to close to freezing even on the same trip as we visit both deserts and high mountains.

Call for general departures:
020 8772 3936
Call for tailormade trips:
+44 (0)20 8772 3874
Trip Notes

Click on the button below for detailed Trip Notes containing all the particulars about this trip, including kit lists and practical information.

Note: these can vary by departure; you can check out the specific Trip Notes for your chosen adventure on the dates & prices page.


Hotel, Yurt and Homestay

Most nights are in standard hotels, though we do also stay in local homestays, yurt camps and a guest house which will be more basic. Hot water is normally available but may not always be reliable; toilets may be squat toilets at times and toilets and/or showers may be outside on some of the more basic nights. Some nights you may end up having to share a room with more than one other person and whilst every effort is made to ensure that on such nights men and women who are not travelling together don’t have to share a room this cannot be guaranteed. On these nights single supplements do not apply. We stay in these places, however, as there are very limited options in some of the areas we visit.

Call for general departures:
020 8772 3936
Call for tailormade trips:
+44 (0)20 8772 3874
Trip Notes

Click on the button below for detailed Trip Notes containing all the particulars about this trip, including kit lists and practical information.

Note: these can vary by departure; you can check out the specific Trip Notes for your chosen adventure on the dates & prices page.

Expert Blog Entries

The mountains will always draw us back to this majestic country: and now, with the return of a very special trip, the

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Dates & Prices

An overview of flight options

Exodus is committed to making joining our tours as easy as possible, wherever you live. We generally only block book seats from London, but this certainly does not mean that you need to fly from there. Depending on the route and airlines available, there will usually be various options available for those who want to fly from their local airport.

This page aims to provide a useful overview of the options available to our clients. However, the best flight arrangements should be tailored to your personal requirements, so please contact our Sales team for expert advice.


What kind of options do I have ?

1. We can book for you: Flights from anywhere in the world - not via London  

Depending on the route, this may be direct or via an overseas hub like Amsterdam, the Middle East or elsewhere. On short haul routes there may be direct flights with low cost airlines, charter flights or scheduled airlines. Exodus can book most, but not all, of these for you. The most appropriate airline may be different to that which we use for the group flight from London, but many people now travel on different airlines and meet up with their fellow passengers at the destination.

Pros Cons
  • May be the most direct route
  • Often the extra fare compared to the London flight is minimal.
  • As you will be in the hands a single airline for your entire journey, the airline will be responsible for your bags and your connections.
  • You may not be able to join the group transfers. However, we can usually arrange private transfers, or book your flights to try and coincide with the group transfers. See notes on transfer arrangements below.


2. We can book for you: Connecting flights from your local airport to London

Exodus can book connecting flights to London so you can join the group flight there. Connecting times will be followed according to airline advice, or as requested by clients. There are two types of fares we can use for this option: a 'through-fare' or a 'published fare'.
a) A 'through-fare' is where you will be in the main airline's care throughout. You change planes, but your bags are checked all the way through to your final destination. 

b) A 'published fare' ticket is completely seperate from your onward ticket from London. It is usually cheaper than a through-fare but will need to be paid for and issued as soon as it is booked. This can be a problem if your tour has not yet reached minimum numbers. On 'published fares' neither airline is aware that you have connecting flights, so Exodus is responsible for timing your connection, not the airlines involved. The tickets are also usually non changeable and non refundable.

Pros Cons
  • Depending on the fare type, Exodus or the airline is responsible for flight connections.
  • Through fare tickets can be expensive.
  • On a published fare, tickets must be issued immediately; tickets on published fares can be very difficult to change if onward flight times change; bags are not checked though to your final destination.
  • Published fares are non-refundable.


3. Booking some or all of the flights yourself

You can also book connecting air travel yourself, either to London, or all the way to the start point. There may be certain airlines or routes we don't have access to, so this is always an option. However, if you make your own travel arrangements you become liable for any delays, cancellations or missed connections, and Exodus is not required to offer refunds if you have trouble reaching the start of your trip.

Pros Cons
  • You might find cheaper fares, or routes not available to Exodus.
  • You are responsible for any delays or missed connections, and the cost of the tour is not protected should you miss your flight be cancelled.


 Notes on transfer arrangements

Sometimes it is possible to travel on a different airline to the group flight from London. Where this is the case, we need to think about ensuring you meet up with the group with minimum extra cost and hassle.

  • On certain trips, it is easy to arrive on a different flight and still meet the group at the hotel with time in hand. We can usually arrange private transfers (at extra cost) or offer advice on taking a taxi to the start hotel.
  • On other trips (especially in Europe), the transfer meets the group flight and then travels some distance to the first night's accommodation. Where this is the case, our Sales team will try to arrange flights that arrive before (and depart after) the group. However, we do have to make it clear in your final documentation that if your flights are delayed, the transfer cannot wait for you. While Exodus or our local operators will do what we can to help you reach the start point of the tour, any additional costs must be paid by the client. 


Next steps? 

Call our Sales team on: 0203 733 0698

Email your query: [email protected]

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